Saturday, 20 July 2019

What Is Agriculture ?

What Is Agriculture ?

Hello everyone , Today in this article I am going to explain about What is agriculture and what are the importance in our life and the steps that it to the agriculture I am going to Spain in this article so please read carefully.

Agriculture :-   

The science of raising crops and animal is called agriculture. The word " agriculture " is divided from latin word 'Agar' meaning ' field ' and ' culture ' meaning ' to grow or cultivate '. Cultivation of plants for food is called farming and rearing of animal to obtain milk , meat and egg is called animal husbandry. We use agriculture products throughout the day.

History Of Agriculture :- 

The early man was a Nomad. He was Hunter - gatherer. He used to hunt animals and ate them raw or cooked on fire. He also used to gather fruits, nuts , seed , leaves , steam etc for eating. 

Around 10,000 BC , The Man Settled close to Riverbank and water bodies , and started farming. Gradually , the man Discover tilling , planting and harvesting the right species of plants and rearing of animal for his needs.

What Is Agriculture Or Crops And Crops Plants :- 

What Is Agriculture Or Crops And Plants :- 

When only one type of plants is cultivated on a large scale at a vast stretch of land , it is called a crop and such plants as Crop plants. 

For example :- A crop of maize means that only Maize plants are grow in the field at one time. 
The word ' crop ' refers to anything produced from soil it may be grains , root , fibres , vegetable , fruits or condiments. 

Horticulture crops:- 

Vegetables fruits flowers for decoration and ornamental non flowering plants are also grow on a large scale these are called Horticulture crops.

Crop session in India :-  

All crops do not grow during the same season. Some crops grows in summer and other in winter . Depending on their growing season , crops in India fall into two categories i.e Rabi crops and kharif crops.

Rabi crops :-  Rabi crops are grown in winter season , Gernally in October - November , and harvested in March - April . Therefore , Rabi crops are called winter crops .

For example :-  Wheat , Gram , Pea , Musterd Etc , are Rabi crops .

Kharif crops :- Kharif Crops are grown in the beginning of rainy season , in June - July , and harvested in September - October. Therefore, kharif crops are called summer crops .

For example :-  paddy ( rice ) , Maize , Jowar , Bajra , groundnut , pulses , cotton , soyabean , Etc , Are Kharif crops.

What Is Agriculture And Basic Agriculture Practices ?

What Is Agriculture And Basic Method Of Agriculture :- 

To raise the crop successfully and have a bumper produce , a farmer follows several practices step by step and uses a variety of tools . These practices are called basic agriculture practices or basic practices of crop production . The tools used during farming are called agricultural implements. 

There Are 9 Method For Crop Production : - 

1 :- Preparation of soil

Seeds germinate in soil . Plants grow and are anchored in the soil. Therefore , soil preparation is necessary for the growth of healthy and bumper crops . Soil preparation involves two step that is is ploughing and levelling.

Ploughing :- Ploughing is also known as tilling. The soil is tilled with a plough pulled by animal or driven by a tractor. Ploughing loosens the soil and allow easy and deeper penetration of the roots. It improve the circulation of air and retention of water in the soil.

Implements used for ploughing are wooden plough, hoe and cultivator. 

Plough is a triangular iron strip attached to a long wooden log at one end and to a wooden beam at the other end.

Hoe is made of a long road of wood or iron. A broad and bent iron plate is attached to one end. It works like a blade and also used for tilling and removing weeds.

Cultivator is the tractor used for ploughing nowadays, which saves time and Labour,

Levelling :- 

The field is levelled for sowing the seeds, irrigating the crop and breaking the big piece of soil. A wooden plank or and iron leveller is used to make the ploughed field levelled. The soil leveller is driven either by bulls or a tractor.

Levelling is essential because it prevents loss of Moisture from the ploughed soil , water logging in the field and, Thus, it helps in uniform irrigation.

Leveling also prevents loss of upper layer of soil from being blown away by the wind. It helps in Breaking the big lumps of soil.

2 :-  Selection And Sowing Of Seeds

Selection of good quality seeds and their proper sowing is essential for getting a better yield of crops.

3 :-  Transplantation Of Seeds 

Some crops like rice and many vegetables are transplanted . The seeds for first sown in in nursery where they grow into tiny plants called Seedlings. These seedlings are then planted in the main fields. This is called transplantation.

Only healthy seedlings are selected by the farmers. Seedling are planted with sufficient spacing between them. This increases yield and crop production.

4 :- Manure And Fertilizers 

For healthy growth of crops plants , different nutritive substance are added to the soil from the time to time . The nutritive substance are called manure and fertilizers , and the mixing with the soil is called manuring . It is very important to grow crop production.

5 :- Irrigation 

The process of watering crop plants in the field at different intervals is called irrigation.

A properly irrigated land produces a much higher yield than a non irrigated land. While in our country, a large number of farmers still depends on Rain water for irrigation, but rain does not provide sufficient amount of water at the right time.

6 :- Weeding ( Removal Of Weeds )

The unwanted plants that grow naturally along with the crop plants are called weeds.

The removal of weeds from the field without harming the crop plants is called wedding.

This is very essential part to grow crop production , without removal of weeds you cannot grow better crops in the field.

7 :- Harvesting

The cutting and gathering of fully mature crop is called harvesting. The harvested grains are called produce or crop yields.

Manual harvesting :- Rice and wheat crops are cut close to the ground by hand using a sickle. This is called Manual Harvesting.

The crop is collected at one place in the field and allowed to dry in the sun for a few days.

Mechanical Harvesting :- In large farms , Harvesting is done mechanically by harvester or combine. A combine has a harvester and thresher combined together in one machine.

8 :- Threshing And Winnowing 
Threshing :- The process of separating grains and husk from the harvested crop is called Threshing.

It can be done in different ways :- 

  •  Manual thrashing :- Harvested crop is threshed by striking against a hard surface.
  • Threshing by animals :- The harvested crop is heaped on the ground and animal like oxen , buffaloes , camels Etc. , are made to walk over it in a circle. The cattle's feet release the grains from chaff.
  • Mechanical Threshing :- A machine called a thresher is used for threshing. The farm machine name combine is used for both harvesting and threshing.

Winnowing :- Winnowing is the process of separating the grains from the hay and chaff with the help of wind.

The grains mix with hey and chaff are made to fall from a height. The Grain fall straight on the ground but the hay and chaff , being lighter, are carried away to some distance by the wind. Winnowing is also carried out by a winning machine.
9 :- Storage Of Grains 

Harvested food grains need to be storage safely so that they are protected from fungal diseases, rodents and insects pests. The freshly harvested grains have moisture which promotes fungal growth.

Hence, grains are properly dried in the sun. The dried food grains are stored in containers, gunny bags or in silos.
  • On domestic level ,wheat, rice, gram, etc, are stored in small metallic containers.
  • On commercial level , foodgrains are stored either in gunny bags or in silos and granaries.
Gunny Bags :- 
    Gunny bags are jute bags. They are filled with foodgrains and are stacked in large godowns on wooden platforms. They are stored about 10 - 15 cm above the ground and about 70 cm away from the walls. The godowns are made free of microbes , insects and rodents by spraying pesticides.

    So these are the 9 method to grow crop production. 

    I think you like this knowledgeable information , if you like then share with your friends and colleagues.

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